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This guide explains the basic technical aspects of conducting information security assessments, from technical testing and examination methods and techniques to insights on the potential impact they may have on systems and networks.
An information security assessment is the process of determining how effectively an entity being assessed (e.g., host, system, network, procedure, person — known as the assessment object) meets specific security objectives. Three types of assessment methods can be used to accomplish this — testing, examination, and interviewing. Testing is the process of exercising one or more assessment objects under specified conditions to compare actual and expected behaviors. Examination is the process of checking, inspecting, reviewing, observing, studying, or analyzing one or more assessment objects to facilitate understanding, achieve clarification, or obtain evidence. Interviewing is the process of conducting discussions with individuals or groups within an organization to facilitate understanding, achieve clarification, or identify the location of evidence. Assessment results are used to support the determination of security control effectiveness over time.
This document, provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, is a guide to the basic technical aspects of conducting information security assessments. It presents technical testing and examination methods and techniques that an organization might use as part of an assessment, and offers insights to assessors on their execution and the potential impact they may have on systems and networks. For an assessment to be successful and have a positive impact on the security posture of a system (and ultimately the entire organization), elements beyond the execution of testing and examination must support the technical process. Suggestions for these activities — including a robust planning process, root cause analysis, and tailored reporting — are also presented in this guide.
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